Climate Governance Initiative


3 August 2023

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This Primer is the result of a collaboration between many organisations and individuals. The Climate Governance Initiative and the Commonwealth Climate and Law Initiative are grateful to all those who have contributed, and in particular, would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following people in producing this Primer:

Commonwealth Climate and Law Initiative (CCLI) and Climate Governance Initiative

Climate Governance InitiativeKarina Litvack     
Dr. Sabrina Bruno, Full Professor of Comparative Corporate LawUniversity of Calabria, Chapter Zero Italy
Emily Farnworth 
Nick Scott 
Rachel Allen 
CCLIProf. Cynthia Williams, Professor of LawYork University, Canada Climate Law Initiative
Ellie MulhollandMinterEllison
Sarah BarkerMinterEllison
Dr. Janis Sarra, Professor of LawUniversity of British Columbia, Canada Climate Law Initiative
Dr. Ernest Lim, Professor of LawNational University of Singapore
Umakanth Varottil, Associate Professor of LawNational University of Singapore
Sonia li TrottierCanada Climate Law Initiative
Alex Cooper 
Julie Luanco     
Param Pandya  
Sonia Kovacevic 
Jenni Ramos 
Zili Duniya Bungwon  
Zaneta Sedilekova 

Contributors to the jurisdictional overviews

BrazilLina Pimentel GarciaMattos Filho
Tábata Boccanera Guerra de OliveiraMattos Filho
ChileFranco AcchiardoClyde & Co
Gustav JacobClyde & Co
ChinaKONG, WeiZhong Lun Law Firm
 CHEN, YuanZhong Lun Law Firm
 NIU, TianhaoZhong Lun Law Firm
 WU, DiZhong Lun Law Firm
EgyptDr. Ziad Bahaa-EldinThebes Consultancy
Nora HarbThebes Consultancy
Ismail RamadanThebes Consultancy
FranceClotilde Guyot-RechardBakerMcKenzie
Guillaume NatafBakerMcKenzie
GermanyDr. Henning SchaloskeClyde & Co
Christoph PiesClyde & Co
GreeceStathis PotamitisPotamitisVekris
Dimitra RachoutiPotamitisVekris
Natalia NicolaidisDynamic Counsel Ltd.
IndiaAnchal DhirCyril Amarchand Mangaldas
Aman Deep BorthakurCyril Amarchand Mangaldas
IndonesiaIra A. EddymurthySSEK
Dewi SavitriSSEK
Aldilla S. SuwanaSSEK
Raisya MajorySSEK
IrelandAnn ShielsFinLexSus
Eugenée MulhernA&L Goodbody LLP
Jill ShawA&L Goodbody LLP
Liam MurphyA&L Goodbody LLP
JapanDr. Masafumi Nakahigashi, Professor of LawNagoya University
Dr. Yoshihiro Yamada, Professor of LawRitsumeikan University
MalaysiaTo’ Puan Janet LooiSKRINE
Francine Ariel PaulSKRINE
Bar Council Environment & Climate Change Committee
MexicoEnrique Salcedo R.Nader, Hayaux & Goebel 
Yves Hayaux du Tilly L.Nader, Hayaux & Goebel 
Netherlands    Rozemarijn BloemendalDeloitte Legal
Ruben KamerlingDeloitte Legal
New ZealandLloyd KavanaghMinterEllisonRuddWatts
Zena RazokiMinterEllisonRuddWatts
PhilippinesCesar L. VillanuevaVillanueva Gabionza & Dy Law
Lily K. GrubaZambrano Gruba Caganda & Advincula Law
Angelo Patrick F. AdvinculaZambrano Gruba Caganda & Advincula Law
Joyce Anne C. WongRomulo Mabanta Buenaventura Sayoc & de los Angeles Law
PolandHalina FrańczakDeloitte Poland
Monika SadkowskaDeloitte Poland
Katarzyna SredzinskaDeloitte Poland
RomaniaCristina ReichmannCMS Cameron McKenna Nabarro Olswang LLP SCP 
Mircea CiutăCMS Cameron McKenna Nabarro Olswang LLP SCP 
RussiaNikita Shabalin DLA Piper
SwitzerlandCorinne NachtBaker McKenzie
Philippe ReichBaker McKenzie
TurkeyEmre DurgunNazali Tax & Legal
Süreyya KorkmazNazali Tax & Legal
UkraineKateryna SorokaDLA Piper
Oleksandr KurdydykDLA Piper
UzbekistanEldor MannopovDentons
Mansurkhon KamalovDentons

About the Climate Governance Initiative

The Climate Governance Initiative (CGI) mobilises boards of directors around the world to address climate change in their businesses. The CGI does this by developing and supporting national associations that equip their members with the skills and knowledge needed to make climate a boardroom priority, building on the World Economic Forum’s Principles for Effective Climate Governance.

About the Commonwealth Climate and Law Initiative

The Commonwealth Climate and Law Initiative (CCLI) is a legal research and stakeholder engagement initiative founded by the University of Oxford’s Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, ClientEarth and Accounting for Sustainability (A4S). It is a U.K. non-profit organisation funded by environmental philanthropy and research grants. 

The CCLI examines the legal basis for directors and trustees to consider, manage, and report on climate change and broader environmental risks, opportunities and impacts, and the circumstances in which there may be liability for failing to do so. It also works to advance knowledge on effective sustainable governance practice.

The CCLI commissions legal opinions from independent experts within a jurisdiction to build an authoritative evidence base on the requirements of company and trust law as it relates to the nature crises. The CCLI works with leading academics, law firms and civil society entities to carry out our own legal research and disseminate the findings. The CCLI’s Canadian partner, the Canada Climate Law Initiative, convenes 60 experts to educate Canadian boards on climate change under the Canadian Climate Governance Experts project. They also provide an online knowledge hub for climate risk and sustainable finance resources.


Any errors or omissions, including differences between linguistic translations, in this primer are the authors' own. The paper reflects the law as at July 2023.

This primer has been prepared for educational purposes only. This document is not, and is not intended to be, legal advice. The Climate Governance Initiative, the Commonwealth Climate and Law Initiative, their partner organisations and collaborators make no representations and provide no warranties in relation to any aspect of this publication, including regarding the liability of any individual person or entity or the advisability of investing in any particular company or investment fund or other vehicle. While we have obtained information believed to be reliable, we shall not be liable for any claims or losses of any nature in connection with information contained in this document, including but not limited to, lost profits or punitive or consequential damages.

The information contained in this Primer is of a general nature and it should not be relied upon as legal advice. Board directors should seek legal advice on the unique circumstances of their company and jurisdiction.